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This method used to be used to begin activities opposed to somebody who had violated the sanctity of definite feast-days, opposed to sycophants,44 and more often than not opposed to somebody who had deceived the folks. forty five within the 5th century it have been hired by way of the buddies of the successful generals of Arginusæ opposed to their accusers; within the fourth by means of Demosthenes opposed to Midias. even though the Ecclesia was once now not empowered to pronounce condemnation accordingly, it was once now not excluded from taking an energetic proportion within the company : it known as upon the 2 events to country their case, and voted by way of convinced in favour of the accusation (katacheirotonia) or by means of no in favour of the defence (apo- cheirotonia). yet, although, if the accuser received the day he used to be no longer obliged to pursue the affair, yet may possibly content material himself with this ethical pride. within the opposite occasion, the thesmothetai brought the probole and the katacheirotonia earlier than the tribunal. forty six The eisangelia used to be even more critical. It was once levelled opposed to the writer of a flagrant act opposed to the protection of the kingdom, and it introduced him, sure hand and foot, to the arbitrary selection of the judges. within the 5th century there has been no textual content defining the acts which fell in the diversity of such an accusation. before everything of the fourth century it really is precise legislations (the νόμος είσαγγέλτικός) validated this prosecution in instances of “grave damage performed to the folks” (αδικία τρος τον δήμον) ; however it decided the functions of the eisangelia some time past (treason, excessive treason, conspiracy, and so forth. ) with no restricting them sooner or later, a lot in order that it got here by means of extension to be hired in situations of breaches of public morality, for instance in situations of adultery. while an accusation of this type was once made in a single of the relevant classes, the Ecclesia voted at the initial query of popularity or rejection. when it comes to an affirmative selection, the Council was once referred to as upon to claim by means of probouleuma even if the affair could be judged by way of the Ecclesia or by means of a tribunal of heliasts, less than the presidency of the thesmothetai. If the folk as a physique retained the appropriate of judgment, its powers have been unrestricted within the decision of consequences; if it deputed the duty, it laid out in the decree introducing the swimsuit the legislation whose sanctions have been t o be utilized in case of condemnation. As one sees it eisangelia used to be a powerful weapon. however it has to be famous that the Ecclesia seldom judged circumstances except these of a frankly political nature, and that, in perform, the indeterminate personality of the crime used to be counterbalanced at any cost via the indeterminate personality of the punishment. The sovereignty of the folk in as far as government strength was once involved should be exercised, evidently, simply in the course of the magistrates. Their position within the nation has to be tested extra heavily, yet for the instant it will likely be adequate to point their dating to the Ecclesia. The magistrates who weren't drawn by means of lot from the folks have been appointed by means of election. The electoral committees have been purely unique assemblies (άρχαιρεσίαι) which sat, because the others did, at the Pnyx, and that have been likewise referred to as into motion through a decree of the Council.

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